Karyotekk Inc. provides clients with a broad range of customized research and diagnostic services including:
Pigs (G-band), Horses (G-band, C-band, FISH), Cattle (G-band). Other species can be assessed according to need.
Pigs: 1-2% of all pigs carry a chromosome abnormality that affects their ability to reproduce. The most common type of heritable defects is a structural chromosomal abnormality known as a translocation. Globally, over 180 types of chromosome translocations have been detected in domestic swine. Of these, 45 different abnormalities have been identified in Canadian swine. Diagnosis by G-Band karyotyping will identify carriers of this abnormality.
Horses: One of the causes of reproductive failure in the horse is an abnormal number of sex chromosome known as sex chromosome aneuploidy. Mares with only one X chromosome, referred to as XO mares, have no definitive external anatomical features but exhibit poorly developed reproductive organs including uterus and ovaries and fail to exhibit estrus. Stallions with an extra X chromosome have small testis and fail to produce sperm. Definitive diagnosis for these conditions can only be obtained by G-band karyotype analysis or FISH.
Cattle: Numerous structural and sex chromosome abnormalities that interfere with fertility are known to occur in cattle. G-Band Karyotype analysis provides a definitive diagnosis.
Other: The Karyotekk team has an established track record of chromosome analysis for a variety of domestic and wild species including dog, cat, sheep, goat, bison, gaur and muskox.
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1/29 Translocation Test
The 1/29 translocation is a heritable chromosome abnormality that has been detected worldwide in numerous breeds of Bos taurus cattle.
Extensive studies have shown that the 1/29 translocation causes an approximate 10% reduction in fertility. This reduction results in higher return to service rates, increased calving interval and higher culling rates. Karyotype screening and selective breeding of normal cattle has led to a reduction in the incidence of this abnormality while increasing overall fertility of the breed. Diagnosis by karyotyping is an effective means of identifying carriers of this abnormality. A specific procedure has been developed to identify this condition.
An animal with vestiges of reproductive organs of both sexes is known as an intersexes or pseudo hermaphrodites. Causes of this abnormality spectrum vary from mutations in individual genes to chromosome abnormalities.
Freemartins: Over 90% of heifers born co-twin to a bull calf are sterile. The heifer suffers an abnormal development of the reproductive tract due to an exchange of cells and hormones between the developing fetuses, however, anatomical and reproductive features do not appear until puberty. These heifers are known as freemartins. The male co-twins are fertile but may experience lower sperm counts later in life. Freemartins also occur in other ruminant species such as sheep and goats. Definitive diagnosis is performed either by Karyotyping or PCR analysis.
Sex reversal: This condition occurs when the genetic sex (females XX chromosomes; males XY chromosomes) and anatomical sex (reproductive tracts) are different. In these cases, animals with female external genitalia have a male (XY) karyotype. Genetic sex can be diagnosed by Karyotype analysis
Androgen insensitivity: Mutations in the androgen receptor gene in males results in a failure of the normal development of the male reproductive tract in the fetus. Instead, female external genitalia, vagina and cervix develop. These animals appear as normal females except they do not have ovaries or exhibit estrous. The mutation is inherited. The Karyotekk laboratory has discovered a number of cases of this abnormality in horses and has developed a testing procedure to identify the carriers.
Stem cells and Cell lines
The Karyotekk team has an established track record of chromosome analysis of a variety of stem cell, cell lines and embryos for research and product development. The appropriate service will be provided upon consultation.